Whether it’s your car, your home, your yard or yourself, everything eventually needs some fixing up.

Whether it’s your car, your home, your yard or yourself, everything eventually needs some fixing up. Some things require the services of a professional, but you can do many other things yourself — including home upgrades that only look expensive — and save a bundle. Manicures and pedicures can cost as much as $20 to $50 apiece and sometimes even more, depending on where you go for this luxury service and what extras you purchase. Save money by pampering your nails yourself. You’ll need to purchase some items upfront to DIY, but handling these tasks at home will add up to big savings over time. When doing your own mani-pedi, just stick to the five S’s: soak, scrub, soften, soothe and seal. A facial from a high-end spa can run you around $50 or more — but not if you do it yourself at home. The key to a truly great facial is not to cut corners by skipping steps or skimping on products. Like a mani-pedi, you’ll have to invest in some products before you start. But again, the initial investment will pay for itself over time. You’ll need something for exfoliation like coffee grounds, clay for pore cleansing and skin-calming and rehydrating products. A lig...

The objective of a particle size analysis may be to obtain a bulk powder measurement to

The objective of a particle size analysis may be to obtain a bulk powder measurement to explore dusting tendency, filter blockage, or flowability, or to get the primary size of a particle system to gain insights into chemical reactivity, gas absorption, and dissolution rate. Finding answer to the question “how many analyzes are required for statistical validity?” is much easier. The probable error or standard error (SE) in multiple measurements is described as follows: Where, n is the number of samples; x is any sample measurement; and xm is the mean of the samples. Using the aforementioned formula the total number of samples required can be calculated. For instance, for a precision of ± 1µm, the total number of samples required would be 23. However, this is not the usual condition that needs to be dealt with in particle size analysis. Standard error varies in proportion to N-1/2, where N is the total number of particles measured. This means that an image analysis may need to analyze on the order of 10000 images to get a satisfactory limit of uncertainty. For minimum number of particles and 1% or better SE with knowledge or assumptions about the particle density, a spreadsheet i...